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854 Geographical Literature and Maps
The maps are crude, behind the times. One would say they had not Sit
John Murray's supervision. That of ocean depths is inexpressive and inaccu-
rate. The temperature and density charts are highly and unnecessarily general-
ized, which is a pity in a book of such rare value. Its small scale is no reason
for putting the equatorial Eomanche Deep a degree too far west, nor the Porto
Eico Deep 200 miles too far north. The West African Basin is not brought out
even so far as an accurate drawing of the 2000 fathom line would allow, with
a better expression of the Walfish Eidge of Supan, which is here hardly hinted
at. The text, too, has no word of the contrast of bottom temperature in the
East and West Atlantic Basins that result from this ridge.
Der Ozean. Eine Einfiihrung in die allgemeine Meereskunde. Von O.
Krummel. 2nd ed. viii and 285 pp. Maps, ills., index. G. Freytag,
Leipzig, 1902. 7%x5%.
"Der Ozean" is the great oceanographer 's contribution to the series of
concise compendiums entitled "Das Wissen der Gegenwart. " It is compact
in plan and includes as its major topics the distribution and articulation of the
oceans, the nature of the sea-floor, the composition and temperatures of the
sea-water, and the forms of water in motion. In the earlier chapters much
space is devoted to the methods employed by the oceanographer in his research.
The final chapter is a masterly treatment of waves, tides, and currents. The
little volume is packed full of examples drawn from a great range of sources.
Krummel seems to be able to quote any reference from the Odyssey down to
date. It is to be regretted that the publishers have economized on the cuts,
which are decidedly ill assorted. Carl O. Bauer.
METEOEOLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
The Atmosphere. By A. J. Berry. Cambridge Manuals of Science and
Literature. 146 pp. Ills., index. University Press, Cambridge; G. P.
Putnam's Sons, New York, 1913. 40 cents. 6%x5.
The title of this book is somewhat misleading. ' ' The Gases of the At-
mosphere" would seem to be better. Beginning with a brief history of the
first experiments, the author traces the rise and fall of the principal theories
concerning the atmosphere. This is followed by a short discussion of the prin-
cipal constituents on the basis of our modern knowledge. The last half of the
book is devoted to the following topics:
The escape of gases from planetary atmospheres according to the kinetie
theory: liquid air; the inert gases in the atmosphere; the radioactivity of
the atmosphere; the probable composition of the atmosphere in early geological
At times explanations are very simple and lucid and at times they lose
themselves in chemical formulae or mathematical physics. In general the
treatise is interesting. Perhaps its chief value lies in the descriptions of the
principal experiments that have been employed for years past to determine the
nature of the atmosphere and its composition. Eugene Van Cleef.
The Place of Climatology in Medicine. Being the Samuel Hyde
Memorial Lectures read before the Section of Balneology and Climatology
of the Eoyal Society of Medicine, May 20 and 21, 1913. By William
Gordon. 62 pp. H. K. Lewis, London, 1913. 9 x 5%.
The Influence of Strong, Prevalent, Rain-Bearing Winds on the
Prevalence of Phthisis. By William Gordon. 108 pp. Maps, index.
H. K. Lewis, London, 1910. 9x6.
Dr. Gordon makes a strong plea for the recognition of climatology in the
medical curriculum in his "Samuel Hyde Memorial Lectures," which were
delivered before the Section of Balneology and Climatology of the Eoyal Society
of Medicine in May, 1913. He points out the seriousness of the present neglect
Geographical Literature and Maps 855
of this branch of teaching, and emphasizes the importance of what he calls ' ' a
new principle in climatological investigation, vie., the principle of approximate
isolation of influences." The recognition of the importance of this "new
principle " as a working basis is certainly not new, but its application in clima-
tological research has not, as Dr. Gordon observes, been given adequate atten-
tion. A further point upon which our author lays emphasis is his view that
there is no valid evidence that altitude per se affects the prevalence of phthisis.
Dr. Gordon's own opinion in regard to phthisis is that the prevalence of
that disease is influenced by strong prevalent rain-bearing winds. This thesis
he has set forth, with great care, in his second volume (published in 1910), in
which he presents the evidence collected during ten years. It must suffice here
to say that he has brought together a large amount of statistical evidence in
support of his view which, if accepted to any degree, will mean, as he says,
that "much of the climatology of phthisis will have to be reconstructed."
E. DeC. Ward.
Our Own Weather. A Simple Account of Its Curious Forms, Its Wide
Travels and Its Notable Effects. By Edwin C. Martin. 281 pp. Ills.,
index. Harper & Brothers, New York & London, 1913. $1.25. 7% x 5.
' ' The weather itself is but an activity. The air of the atmosphere, like the
water of the sea, and, indeed, like all nature, including man, is forever seeking
ease and never quite finding it. The weather is simply the air's business."
Thus does the author of this pleasing volume open his first chapter. He obvi-
ously writes because of pure love of the subject. In an easy, colloquial, vivid,
personal way the ordinary facts of our weather controls and weather types are
described, and in a broad, general way they are also explained. There is
nothing of the text-book here. It is all free and easy and unconstrained. It
is refreshingly different. One may readily pardon the occasional inaccuracies
in view of the merits of the book, which is so well up to date that it includes an
account of the tornadoes and floods of March, 1913. We think that the effort
to make the descriptions vivid and catchy is frequently overdone. For example,
on page 62 we read: "Usually in the formation of a trough a center of low
pressure up about the Great Lakes has entered into a kind of trust with one
down in the neighborhood of the Gulf, and the combination holds ground in a
rather dull, obstructive way, northeast and southwest, over the lower Mississippi
and Ohio valleys, a business without, for the moment, any real head." Nor
do we like "the body that scatters the air around and makes fair weather"
(title to chapter VII). Yet we have no hesitation in saying that Mr. Martin's
book may well be read by those who wish to become acquainted with the facts
of "our own weather," and with their explanations. The cloud views are re-
produced, in half-tones, from the colored Hydrographic Office cloud types, with-
out, so far as we have discovered, any indication of the source from which they
were taken. The colored views are so much better than Mr. Martin's and are
so readily obtainable that some reference to them should have been made. But
the author has strictly avoided references, so he is, at any rate, consistent.
E. DeC. Ward.
Das Meer als Quelle der Volkergrdsse. Eine politisch-geographische
Studie. "Von F. Eatzel. 2. verbesserte Auflage besorgt von H. Helmolt.
iv and 91 pp. E. Oldenbourg, Miinchen, 1911. Mk. 1.80. 9x6.
This is the second edition of Eatzel 's endorsement of strong naval arma-
ments. The new edition has been brought down to date by Hans Helmolt,
who has incorporated his revisions in Eatzel 's text.
Writing at a time when Germany was undecided as to her naval policy, the
author has marshaled his knowledge of geographical influences in the past to
insist upon the necessity of vigorous maritime expansion. Although this was
the main purpose, Eatzel has implied rather than expressed his Pan-Germanic
leanings. In a series of essays of great literary charm, he has restated his
familiar principles of the cosmopolitanism of maritime nations. He sees those